High School High School Society and the World High School Space and Planetary Sciences

The Theory of Everything

What is the beginning of the universe? What is the universe made up of?


Since the beginning of time, scientists have looked for a unifying theory that could explain all of the phenomena in the known universe. What is the beginning of the universe? What is the universe made up of? Crazy right? However, we may be one step closer to understanding how everything relates to each other through the complex, yet fascinating concept of the string theory.


To understand string theory, we must understand that there are four main forces known in science: gravity, electromagnetism, and weak and strong nuclear forces. Electromagnetic, and weak and strong nuclear forces are understood relatively well in the world of science: scientists can explain the behavior and relationships between these particles fairly well.


Yet, one force that has eluded scientists for a while is the gravitational force. We do not fully understand its behavior and functions as well as the other forces; gravitational force is also hard to prove microscopically. Theoretical physicists have taken it upon themselves to uncover the quantum theory of gravity, also known as the string theory.


The string theory, simply put, describes how objects interact with each other through space and time. In essence, all particles are connected by “strings” which propagate throughout the universe. Each particle’s string has a different type of oscillation. Therefore, based on the type of oscillation, we can determine what type of particle we are studying. If the string theory is true, our entire universe is made out of one string, and the different particles are a result of the many different oscillations that are taking place.


The string theory still needs to be studied in further detail, but scientists believe it can provide insight into whether or not there are other dimensions in our universe. We are familiar with four dimension so far: right to left, up and down, forwards and backwards, and time. However, the string theory states that there are seven more dimensions that have yet to be discovered!


The composition of our universe is fascinating- a topic that many scientists have yet to conduct further research on. While we may not have a solid theory for the entire universe, we will be closer to finding one with every piece of knowledge that we gather in the future.


(1) Guijosa, Alberto. What is String Theory? Sept. 9, 2004. http://www.nuclecu.unam.mx/~alberto/physics/string.html

(2) Whitwell, Tim. What is String Theory? Physics.org. (n.d.). http://www.physics.org/article-questions.asp?id=47

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